Population in the world is currently (2020) growing at a rate of around 1.05% per year (down from 1.08% in 2019, 1.10% in 2018, and 1.12% in 2017). The current average population increase is estimated at 81 million people per year. Annual growth rate reached its peak in the late 1960s, when it was at around 2%. The rate of increase has nearly halved since then, and will continue to decline in the coming years. World population will therefore continue to grow in the 21st century, but at a much slower rate compared to the recent past. World population has doubled (100% increase) in 40 years from 1959 (3 billion) to 1999 (6 billion). It is now estimated that it will take another nearly 40 years to increase by another 50% to become 9 billion by 2037.The latest world population projections indicate that world population will reach 10 billion persons in the year 2057.

Although population growth in the 20th and 21st centuries has rocketed, it can be slowed, stopped and reversed. Under the United Nations’ most optimistic scenario, a sustainable reduction in global population could happen within decades. We need to take many actions to reduce the impact of those of us already here - especially the richest of us who have the largest emvironmental impact - including through reducing consumption to sustainable levels, and systemic economic changes to ensure global justice within the environmental limits of our planet. One of the most effective steps we can take to achieve both goals – reducing our environmental impact and ending population growth – is to choose smaller family size, and empower those who can't make that choice freely to do so. Population growth can be slowed, stopped and reversed through actions which enhance global justice and improve people's lives.

One of the gravest development issues most developing countries in the world are facing is population. As per United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30% between 1990 and 2010 which is an alarmingly high rate. Excessive population has various adverse effects including undue pressure on natural resources. More people mean more consumption which in turn means more exploitation of fixed and exhaustible resources. Also population is not a universal challenge. It is specific to nations whose economies have yet not achieved full potential and development. Along with China and India, the African and some Latin countries also see an extremely high population growth rate. Rather China, which is the most populated nation, has achieved a very appreciative control over their growth of population though their ways are highly autocratic and cannot be replicated in other countries.

One big drawback of developing countries is that of limited and highly centric medical facilities. Because of the high rural-urban divide in developing countries, availability of good hospitals and doctors is limited to urban centers thus resulting in high infant mortality rate in rural areas. Rural people, in order to ensure that at least some of their kids survive, give birth to more and more kids thus contributing to the population growth. If provided with optimum medical facilities population rate will almost certainly decline.

Why the enormous population and the increasing rate of it is the biggest challenge faced by the developing nations of Africa and Asia while the same is a little or no threat in countries like America, Europe or Japan. Lack of Development implies high poverty, high illiteracy, high discrimination, lack of awareness, lack of medical facilities and thus in turn increased population growth. Any economy is termed developed is its population is non-discriminated and just. By reducing discrimination between gender and class and ensuring development of the whole population instead of a given segment of society would eliminate the challenge of population growth for once.